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4 edition of Evolution of chordate structure found in the catalog.

Evolution of chordate structure

an introduction to comparative anatomy.

by Hobart Muir Smith

  • 321 Want to read
  • 34 Currently reading

Published by Holt, Rinehart and Winston in [New York] .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Chordata -- Anatomy.,
  • Anatomy, Comparative.

  • Edition Notes

    Includes bibliography.

    StatementIllustrated by Alice Boatright.
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsQL805 .S6
    The Physical Object
    Pagination529 p.
    Number of Pages529
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL5797567M
    LC Control Number60010002


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Evolution of chordate structure by Hobart Muir Smith Download PDF EPUB FB2

Evolution of Chordate Structure Hardcover – January 1, by Hobart Smith (Author) out of 5 stars 1 ratingReviews: 1. Chordate Origins and Evolution: The Molecular Evolutionary Road to Vertebrates focuses on echinoderms (starfish, sea urchins, and others), hemichordates (acorn worms, etc.), cephalochordates (lancelets), urochordates or tunicates (ascidians, larvaceans and others), and vertebrates.

In general, evolution of these groups is discussed independently, on a larger scale: ambulacrarians (echi+hemi) and chordates Cited by: 9. This book discusses the origin and evolution of chordates. Chordates are animals characterized by the possession of a notochord, a dorsal neural tube, somites, pharyngeal gills, an endostyle, and a postanal tail.

Chordates comprise three major taxa: cephalochordates (lancelets). Chordates and the Evolution of Vertebrates.

The most familiar group of chordates is the vertebrates. However, in addition to the subphylum Vertebrata, the phylum Chordata also contains two subphylums of invertebrates: Urochordata and Cephalochordata. In preparing this book my intentions were. lay the bare essentials of a groundwork for understanding the basic structure of primitive chordate, 2.

to trace the most obvious or important trends in the evolution of this basic structure in various vertebraete lines, 3. to convey an appreciation of how the more advanced group of vertebrates. Evolutionary relationships among the deuterostomes and debates over chordate ancestry have challenged zoologists for over a hundred years (9–15).

Urochordate and hemichordate evolutionary relationships are central to understanding chordate evolution, but morphological disparities among taxa and a poor fossil record have hampered research by: Chordate Origins and Evolution: The Molecular Evolutionary Road to Vertebrates focuses on echinoderms (starfish, sea urchins, and others), hemichordates (acorn worms, etc.), cephalochordates (lancelets), urochordates or tunicates (ascidians, larvaceans and others), and vertebrates.

Understanding chordate origins and evolution has been a preeminent challenge for biologists over the last two centuries (Swalla and Xavier-Neto ). The phylum Chordata consists of three. You need a hollow nerve cord that runs along the back, a notochord that runs just beside the nerve cord, pharyngeal pouches in the neck and throat area, as well as a tail that runs below the anus.

These apply to every chordate at some point in their life cycle. A majority of them occur for humans in the embryonic stage.

Here we describe the structure and gene content of the highly polymorphic ∼megabase genome of the Florida lancelet Branchiostoma floridae, and analyse it in the context of chordate by:   The chordates are named for the notochord, which is a flexible, rod-shaped structure that is found in the embryonic stage of all chordates and in the adult stage of some chordate species.

It is located between the digestive tube and the nerve cord, and. The chordates are named for the notochord: a flexible, rod-shaped structure that is found in the embryonic stage of all chordates and also in the adult stage of some chordate species. It is located between the digestive tube and the nerve cord, providing skeletal support through the length of the body.

A tissue with many of the defining features of vertebrate cellular cartilage is shown to form transiently in larvae of the invertebrate chordate amphioxus, indicating that the origin of the Cited by:   According to the alternative scenario or progressive evolution of motile adults, the chordate ancestor was free-living and vermiform, and the sequence of ancestral forms is thought to have consisted of motile, bilaterally symmetric organisms, as opposed to larvae [12,17,18,52–54].

Motile forms such as enteropneust hemichordates and cephalochordates are typically considered close to Cited by: As the name implies, at some time in the life cycle a chordate possesses a stiff, dorsal supporting rod (the notochord).

Also characteristic of the chordates are a tail that extends behind and above the anus, a hollow nerve cord above (or dorsal to) the gut, gill slits opening from the pharynx to the exterior, and an endostyle (a mucus-secreting structure) or its derivative between the gill slits.

A chordate (/ ˈ k ɔːr d eɪ t /) is an animal of the phylum some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this tes are also bilaterally symmetric, and have a coelom, metameric segmentation, and circulatory : ParaHoxozoa.

Additional Physical Format: Online version: Smith, Hobart Muir, Evolution of chordate structure. [New York] Holt, Rinehart and Winston [].

FOR & (Hons) CLASSES OF ALL INDIAN UNIVERSITIES AND ALSO AS PER UGC MODEL CURRICULUMN Contents: CONTENTS:Protochordates:Hemicholrdata rdata Cephalochordata Vertebrates: Cyclostomata 3. Agnatha, Pisces Amphibia 4. Reptilia 5. Aves Mammalia 7 Comparative Anatomy:lntegumentary System 8 Skeletal System Coelom and Digestive System 10 Respiratory 3/5(2).

» Over the course of evolution, the appearance of new adaptations—such as jaws and paired appendages—has launched adaptive radiations in chordate groups.» Adaptive radiation is the rapid diversification of species as they adapt to new conditions.

CHORDATES. The Phylum Chordate includes bilaterally symmetrical, metamerically segmented, triploblastic, enterocoelomate metazoans exhibiting hights complex organization. This phylum is supposed to be one of the most heterogenous and diversified gruop of animal kingdom.

The minute sessile cephalodiscus, work-like Balanoglossus, degenerate tunicates, Amphioxus and the true. The chordates are named for the notochord, which is a flexible, rod-shaped structure that is found in the embryonic stage of all chordates and in the adult stage of some chordate species.

It is located between the digestive tube and the nerve cord, and provides skeletal support through the length of the body.

The evolution of structure and function, then, is the theme of this book which presents, system by system, the evolution of structure and function of vertebrates. Each chapter presents the major evolutionary trends of an organ system, with instructions for laboratory exploration of these trends included so the student can integrate concept with 5/5(1).

DIVERSITY AND EVOLUTION OF NON-CHORDATA (PROTISTA TO PSEUDOCOELOMATES) (CREDITS: THEORY-4, PRACTICALS-2) THEORY Full mark Theory – 75 (Mid Sem: 15 + End Sem: 60), Practical – 25 Unit 1: Protista, Parazoa and Metazoa and Porifera General characteristics and Classification up to classes.

Study of Euglena, Amoeba. Life cycleFile Size: KB. The generalised chordate ancestry is as follows: This was suggested by l, () in his book “The origin of Vertebrates”. ECHINODERM - AURICULARIA - HEMICHORDATA- TORNARIA -PROTO CHORDATE ASCIDIAN TADPOLE - FREE SWIMMING CHORDATE.

a & N.P. Anagnostakos, Principles of anatomy and physiology. (Harper & Row Publ., N.Y.). pages. A.J. Marshall, Textbook of zoology. The chordates are named for the notochord, which is a flexible, rod-shaped mesodermal structure that is found in the embryonic stage of all chordates and in the adult stage of some chordate species.

It is strengthened with glycoproteins similar to cartilage and covered with a collagenous sheath. A Guide for the Study of Animals.

This guide to the study of animals is intended for pupils in secondary schools. Topics covered includes: Introductory Studies of Living Animals, Studies of Insects, The Connection between Structure and Function, Adaptation to Surroundings, Adaptation for Protection from Enemies, Vertebrates, Adaptations for the Preservation of the Species, Poultry.

In addition, chordates have several unique structures. One such structure is the notochord. This is a stiff-yet-flexible rod of tissue extending the length of the animal that provides internal support. A second structure is a hollow nerve cord (also called a spinal cord) that extends the.

This will be the first book to synthesize, summarize, and provide high-quality illustrations to show what is known of the configuration, development, homology, and evolution of the muscles of all major extant chordate groups.

Hagfish as a type of chordate Skills Practiced Reading comprehension - make sure you know the most important information from the lesson on chordates' evolution. The chordate characters of tunicates are most apparent during their larval stage.

In many species, the larva uses its tail muscles and notochord to swim through water in search of a suitable substrate on which it can settle, guided by cues it receives from light- and gravity-sensitive cells.

The evolution of nervous systems dates back to the first development of nervous systems in animals (or metazoans). Neurons developed as specialized electrical signaling cells in multicellular animals, adapting the mechanism of action potentials present in motile single-celled and colonial nerve nets seen in animals like Cnidaria (jellyfish) evolved first, consisted of.

The "END OF GOUT" is a short, to the point guide on how to reverse gout symptoms without ever leaving your home. The guide goes into extensive detail on exactly what you need to do to safely, effectively and permanently get rid of gout, and you are GUARANTEED to see dramatic improvements in days if not hours.

-Pharyngeal pouches -paired structures in throat; may develop into gills-Tail - extends beyond anus. About 96% of all chordate species belong in one subphylum: Subphylum Vertebrata- VertebratesAnimals with a backbone or vertebral column (endoskeleton)Have spinal cord - dorsal, hollow nerve cord Front end of spinal cord develops a brain.

In the s, William Bateson [4, 5, 6] first compared hemichordate and chordate ng the direct-developing enteropneust Saccoglossus kowalevskii, he perceived major chordate traits and placed hemichordates in the chordate him, a short, stiff rod of cells, projecting from the anterior gut into the proboscis, was a notochord (see ‘stomochord’ in Figure 1).Cited by:   Literature at end of most of the chapters.

Vertebrate zoology; an introduction to the comparative anatomy, embryology, and evolution of chordate animalsPages: Structure. The bodies of Hemichordates are divided into three parts, proboscis, collar and have open circulatory systems and a complete digestive tract but the musculature in their gut is very poorly developed, and food is mostly transported through it by using the cilia that cover its inside surface.

A hollow neural tube exists among some species (at least in early life), probably Kingdom: Animalia. Page 1 Lower Chordates ZOO Biology of Animals Topic 13 Phylum Chordata (“cord”) The name comes from the notochord, rodlike, semirigid tissue enclosed in a sheath: •In most cases, it extends the length of the body and is between the gut tract and the nervous Size: 3MB.

If your interest in evolution goes well beyond extinct mammals and reptiles, you can handle a bit of zoological jargon, and Chordate Origins and Evolution: The Molecular Evolutionary Road to Vertebrates strikes you as too technical, then Across the Bridge is a wonderfully readable overview of how we vertebrates relate to our closest.

Primate evolution and behavior, such as hunting skills, have been directed in part by the development of depth perception. What anatomical change made depth perception possible. movement of the eyes to the front of the head the formation of compound eyes diurnal activity a larger brain.

(C) Diagram illustrating a model of chordate heart evolution. According to this model, expansion of induction within a broad heart field led to the emergence of a dual heart phenotype (as illustrated experimentally through manipulation of Ets1/2 activation in Ciona embryos).Human evolution, the process by which human beings developed on Earth from now-extinct zoologically, we humans are Homo sapiens, a culture-bearing upright-walking species that lives on the ground and very likely first evolved in Africa aboutyears ago.

We are now the only living members of what many zoologists refer to as the human tribe, Hominini, but there is .Get this from a library! Vertebrate zoology; an introduction to the comparative anatomy, embryology, and evolution of chordate animals. [Gavin De Beer, Sir].